FMEA Meaning, Types, and Importance
Jul 28, 2023
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a proactive risk-assessment method that helps identify and evaluate potential failure modes and their effects on a product or process. This method finds application in industries such as automotive, aerospace, and manufacturing, where it is used to improve the quality and reliability of products and processes.
FMEA involves a team of experts who analyze a system or product to determine the likelihood of failure modes and their effects. This analysis is done in a step-by-step process, and the results are used to develop corrective actions to mitigate failures.
But what is failure mode? Failure mode refers to an element, component, system, function, or process with a non-zero probability of failure. Let’s understand it with an example of a motorcycle. The motorcycle’s disc brake works due to the friction between the rotor and the brake pads. Now, several events, such as oil spills on the road or heavy rains, can result in reduced friction, eventually leading to brake failure and an accident. These events are referred to as failure modes.
FMEA identifies failure modes and effects and prioritizes resolving or eliminating them before the product is released.
In the 1940s–50s, the United States military developed a method called “failure mode and effects analysis” to improve the reliability of weapons systems, airplanes, and missiles. During World War II, the U.S. military encountered numerous weapons system failures, leading to loss of lives and resources.
The military then developed a systematic approach to identify and tackle potential failure modes in weapons systems. This approach involved analyzing each component and subsystem of the weapons to expose potential points of failure and their causes and effects on the system’s performance. The military also developed methods to quantify the probability and severity of each failure mode and prioritize its remediation.
After the war, FMEA was adapted and applied across other industries to improve the reliability and safety of their products and processes. In the 1960s, FMEA was incorporated into the NASA Apollo program, where it was used to determine potential failure modes in the spacecraft and its subsystems.
Since then, FMEA has become widely used as a risk-mitigating tool in several industries, such as electronics, telecommunications, and healthcare.
FMEA relies on several standards that outline the FMEA process and provide guidance on conducting an FMEA. Let’s look at some of the most widely recognized FMEA standards:
FMEA uses a structured approach to recognize potential failure modes and develop solutions to prevent those failures. Let’s look at the steps followed in FMEA:
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FMEA is primarily categorized into three types: design FMEA (DFMEA), process FMEA (PFMEA), and system FMEA (SFMEA). Each type focuses on a different stage of the product or process lifecycle and has a different objective.
DFMEA is performed during the product design phase. DFMEA aims to improve product design by discovering and addressing potential issues before the product is released to the market. This involves assessing the characteristics that can have a safety and regulatory impact on the product. It may include evaluating the properties of materials used (lubricity, viscosity, or elasticity), product geometry, tolerances, engineering noise, and so on.
DFMEA is usually employed in the following industries:
PFMEA is performed during the manufacturing or production process. This involves locating failures that may lead to reduced process reliability, safety of the workforce, and customer dissatisfaction. It also involves assessing human factors or errors, analyzing methods, materials, and machines used in the business process, examining measurement metrics relied upon for product acceptance, and exploring environmental factors affecting the business process.
PFMEA is typically used in the following industries:
SFMEA is performed during the service or maintenance phase. The following sectors rely on SFMEA to assess risks:
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In modern industries where the emphasis is on high quality, reliability, and safety, FMEA is a crucial tool to uncover potential failures in products, processes, or systems before they impact the entire system.
According to a 2023 report by Grand View Research, the risk-assessment market had a valuation of $5.98 billion in 2022 and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 6.1% from 2023 to 2030. The report cites that in 2022, the industrial sector, which relies on machines for production, earned the maximum overall revenue among all verticals (automotive, food & beverages, consumer electronics, industrial, healthcare, and others) with a share of 30.03%.
Risk assessments are performed using several methods, such as hazard analysis, FMEA, and fault tree analysis (FTA). However, the importance of FMEA in modern industries is quantifiable due to the following reasons:
FMEA allows companies to resolve possible failures before they adversely affect the business. By addressing issues early on, companies can improve product and process quality, increase customer satisfaction, and reduce the likelihood of costly rework, warranty claims, or product recalls.
In industries such as aerospace, healthcare, and automotive, where safety is a critical concern, FMEA performs an essential role by tracking down potential safety risks and their causes. Companies can then take actions to eliminate risks and ensure employee and customer safety.
With FMEA, companies can avoid costly repairs, downtime, and rework, resulting in significant cost savings and increased efficiency.
Many industries are subject to regulatory compliance standards that require using risk management techniques such as FMEA. By using FMEA, companies can ensure compliance with regulatory standards.
As FMEA improves product and process quality, enhances safety, and reduces costs, companies inevitably gain a competitive advantage over their rivals. They can build a positive reputation for high-quality products, improved safety, and customer satisfaction, leading to increased market share and profitability.
By understanding the potential risks that FMEA reveals and taking corrective actions, companies can develop innovative products and processes that meet customer needs and expectations.
In addition to these benefits, FMEA has become even more important in modern industries due to the increasing complexity and interconnectivity of products, processes, and systems. The emergence of new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and the internet of things (IoT) has added a new dimension to the risk management process, making it more challenging to identify and mitigate potential failures.
Today, several modern technologies and tools are used to perform FMEA to improve product and process effectiveness and efficiency. Some of the most common tools used in modern FMEA include:
As technology continues to advance, we can expect more sophisticated tools and techniques to be developed to enhance the FMEA process further.
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FMEA will continue to evolve as industries adopt new technologies. One potential development is the increased use of AI and ML algorithms to analyze data and determine potential failure modes. This could lead to more efficient and accurate FMEA processes.
Another potential development is the integration of FMEA into the product lifecycle management (PLM) process. This could allow for more comprehensive risk management, from design to end-of-life, throughout the product development process. Additionally, as companies prioritize sustainability and environmental impact, FMEA may be used to find potential environmental risks and improve product sustainability.
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AI Researcher AIAG-VDA FMEA Handbook:ISO 9001:2015 quality management systems:IEC 60812:2018:MIL-STD-1629A:SAE ARP5580:Identify the scope:Assemble the team:Develop a process flow diagram:Identify potential failure modes:Assess the severity of each failure mode: Assess the likelihood of each failure mode:Assess the detectability of each failure mode: Calculate the risk priority number (RPN): Develop corrective actions:Implement corrective actions:Review and update FMEA: Automotive industry:Aerospace industry:Semiconductor industry:Food industry:Medical device industryTelecommunications industry:FMEA software:CAD and simulation tools:Statistical analysis tools:IoT and sensor technology: Collaborative tools:Join Spiceworks